A crater on the moon that is a prime target for human exploration may be tantalizingly rich in ice, though researchers warn it could just as well hold none at all.
The scientists investigated Shackleton Crater, which sits almost directly on the moon’s south pole. The crater, named after the Antarctic explorer Ernest Shackleton, is more than 12 miles wide (19 kilometers) and 2 miles deep (3 km) — about as deep as Earth’s oceans.
The interiors of polar craters on the moon are in nearly perpetual darkness, making them cold traps that researchers have long suspected might be home to vast amounts of frozen water and thus key candidates for human exploration. However, previous orbital and Earth-based observations of lunar craters have yielded conflicting interpretations over whether ice is there.
For instance, the Japanese spacecraft Kaguya saw no discernible signs of ice within Shackleton Crater, but NASA’s LCROSS probe analyzed Cabeus Crater near the moon’s south pole and found it measured as much as 5 percent water by mass. [Photos: Searching for Water on the Moon]
Now scientists who have mapped Shackleton Crater with unprecedented detail have found evidence of ice inside the crater.
NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter essentially illuminated the crater’s interior with infrared laser light, measuring how reflective it was. The crater’s floor is more reflective than that of other nearby craters, suggesting it had ice.
“Water ice in amounts of up to 20 percent is a viable possibility,” study lead author Maria Zuber, a geophysicist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, told SPACE.com.
Don’t get your hopes up, though. The amount of ice in Shackleton Crater “can also be much less, conceivably as little as zero,” Zuber cautioned.
This uncertainty is due in part to what the researchers saw in the rest of the crater. Bizarrely, while the crater’s floor was relatively bright, Zuber and her colleagues observed that its walls were even more reflective.
Scientists had thought that if highly reflective ice were anywhere in a crater, it would be on the floor, which live in nearly permanent darkness. In comparison, the walls of Shackleton Crater occasionally see daylight, which should evaporate any ice that accumulates.
The researchers think the reflectance of the crater’s walls is due not to ice, but to quakes. Every once in a while, the moon experiences shaking brought on by meteor collisions or the pull of the Earth. These “moonquakes” may have caused Shackleton’s walls to slough off older, darker soil, revealing newer, brighter soil underneath.
Whether or not the crater floor is brightly reflective due to ice or other factors is also open to question.This split-view image shows an elevation map (left) and shaded relief (right) of the 21-kilometer-wide Shackleton Crater. The crater’s structure is shown in false color from data by NASA’s LRO probe. Image released June 20, 2012. CREDIT: NASA/GSFC/SVS
“The reflectance could be indicative of something else in addition to or other than water ice,” Zuber said. For instance, the crater floor might be reflective because it could have had relatively little exposure to solar and cosmic radiation that would have darkened it.
Zuber noted that the measurements only look at a micron-thick portion of Shackleton Crater’s uppermost layer. “A bigger question is how much water might be buried at depth,” Zuber said, adding that NASA’s GRAIL mission will investigate that possibility.
“We would like to study other lunar polar craters in comparable detail,” Zuber said. “There is much to be learned here.”
What does all this mean? Will the current occupants of the Moon share the water with us humans?
I wouldn’t bet on it.
We’re being relegated to catching asteroids.
While NASA is in the throes of budgetary Purgatory, they did manage to come up with an unique, inexpensive way to put a couple of probes that have finished their primary mission into Lunar orbit to do some extra science:
A pair of Earth-orbiting satellites designed to study the auroras are making a detour to visit the moon.
The two spacecraft are part of a fleet of five launched into Earth orbit by NASA in 2007 on a mission called THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms). They have been studying the space storms that trigger the northern and southern lights, or auroras, on Earth.
But two of the satellites were set to go on death row earlier this year. If they had been left in their original orbits, the solar-powered craft would have made lengthy passages through Earth’s shadow in March 2010, fatally draining their batteries, according to a Discovery News story.
To avoid this and to squeeze some more science out of the two spacecraft, the THEMIS team decided to send them farther from Earth and park them in orbit around the moon.
But there was a problem. Getting into orbit around the moon takes a lot of energy, and the two spacecraft simply didn’t have enough fuel to get the job done. So the team devised a clever, roundabout way to get there on a shoestring.
“We realized that if we had enough fuel to change their orbits, the moon’s gravity would start pulling them up,” the mission’s chief scientist Vassilis Angelopoulos of the University of California, Berkeley, told Discovery News.
The spacecraft were already in elongated orbits that passed close to Earth at one end and looped far into space at the other end. Starting in 2009, the spacecraft used their thrusters to extend the far end of their orbits, setting them up for close encounters with the moon.
The gravitational slingshot effect from these lunar encounters, as well as the probes’ close passes near Earth, changed their trajectories drastically – you can see the technical details here (pdf). Their own thrusters should be able to do the rest of the job, putting them in orbit around the moon in 2011. There, they will measure tenuous gas surrounding the moon, called the exosphere, and record the interaction of the solar wind with the moon.
Not bad for two spacecraft that would have been space junk by now without this creative rescue plan.
So NASA is capable of planning economic missions if pressed. We need more thinking like this.
Remember Atlantropa? The German idea from the early 20th Century to put a dam in the Straits of Gibraltar and divert the waters of the Mediterranean Sea into Africa in order to modify the Sahara Desert? (link)
Well, the Shimizu Corporation has a similar idea with its ‘Aqua-Net’:
Challenges of the future include energy use and continued population growth. And, while there are millions of square miles of land available in the world, not all of it is considered fit for human habitation. Shimizu Corporation, the company contemplating the Luna Ring, has another interesting project in the “just coming up with an idea” stage: The Desert Aqua-Net.
The Desert Aqua-Net is an idea that involves the building of interconnected lakes in the desert. These 18-mile-diameter lakes would be connected by canals fed from the ocean. The lakes would include built islands that could serve as homes for cities teeming with people. Supposedly, this would work because water from the lake would cool the cities, making them livable. There would also be arable land, theoretically, after this cooling above the desert lake islands. The cities would be powered by satellite power stations, and by the sun.
One of the biggest draw backs is that the lakes would be filled with seawater. While the salt water would provide the opportunities for water-based wildlife, and even for biomass development, it doesn’t provide much opportunity for drinking. However, Shimizu plans that the some of the water would be desalinated, and thus made fit for human consumption and for irrigation of crops.
Of course, cost is a huge barrier to a project like the Aqua-Net. It would be extremely expensive, not to mention use vast resources, to build this Desert Aqua-Net. Other problems could easily arise, related to impacts on oceans and rivers. And, of course, predicting weather patterns, and changes to the climate, could present problems, since these cities could be impacted quite a bit. Finally, and not least, issues of sovereignty would likely arise — especially since the Desert Aqua-Net would require a great deal of cooperation between countries.
I think I would try this project in Australia first. They have experienced an extended drought in their interior for over seven years plus they have an advanced sea-water desalinization technology.
If the powers that be are trying to push for a Kardashev “Type One” civilization here, control of all of the planet’s resources and climate is necessary.
Today’s hat tip is Graham Hancock’s NewsDesk.
NWO Population Control Propaganda / Commercial Space Venture Uses Old Soviet Tech with Conflict of Interest?
The human-haters among us will surely rejoice in this article:
Leading figures from science and environmentalism have backed a call for population restraint policies to be adopted by every state worldwide as part of the battle against climate change.
The Optimum Population Trust says today (August 17, 2009) that the climate change talks which will culminate at Copenhagen in December must ensure that all countries adopt non-coercive policies to limit and stabilise population growth. Family planning programmes in poorer countries should be treated as “legitimate candidates for climate change funding”. Empowering women to control their own fertility would also have major humanitarian benefits for the poorest women and children in the world.
Successful population policies, which answered the unmet need for family planning, could mean nearly three billion fewer people in 2050, a difference equivalent to 44 per cent of current world population (6.8 billion), OPT says. “All environmental problems, and notably those arising from climate change, would be easier to solve with a smaller future population.”
Figures endorsing the statement include broadcaster and film-maker Sir David Attenborough; Professor Paul Ehrlich, author of the 1960s classic The Population Bomb; Gaia scientist James Lovelock; Jonathon Porritt, chair of the UK Sustainable Development Commission until last month and a former director of Friends of the Earth; and Professor Chris Rapley, formerly head of the British Antarctic Survey.*
Roger Martin, chair of OPT, said: “The fact that such eminent individuals, several of them OPT patrons, have personally endorsed our statement should act as a wake-up call to those involved in the Copenhagen process. At the very least it should spur negotiators to start taking population growth seriously as a major driver of climate change. There’s not much point in labouring mightily to cut our carbon emissions if hard-won improvements are then routinely drowned out by rising numbers of people.”
The woman holding the placard stating “Kill Yourself” says it all, doesn’t it?
So far, people like her fit right in the elitists’ plans to spread this vile misinformation.
But there might come a day when they are considered ‘useless eaters’ by the same criminals they once embraced!
Feh! And it’s people like them who scoff at space programs!
Hmm, not only does Bigelow Aerospace figure on launching a stripped down version of NASA’s Orion capsule in 2013, a company named Excalibur Almaz Limited plans on updated old top-secret Soviet space technology to launch capsules and a small, manned space station in 2013:
An international company announced plans to launch a commercial space venture using spacecraft designed for a once classified Russian space program. Excalibur Almaz Limited plans to offer week-long orbital space flights beginning as early as 2013 with updated 1970’s era Reusable Return Vehicles, designed for flying to the USSR’s top-secret Almaz space station. Excalibur Alamaz’s press release said they would be “taking a big leap beyond the sub-orbital flight market targeted by most other private space companies.”
Excalibur Almaz (EA) is currently updating the spacecraft to conduct crew and cargo space missions for private individuals, corporations, academic institutions and national governments.JSC MIC NPO Mashinostroyenia (NPOM) of Russia originally built the spacecraft and EA has purchased both the rockets and modules for the Almaz space station, which was never flown. The RRVs went through nine flight tests, with two RRVs flown to orbit several times.
EA Founder and CEO Art Dula said, “Through cooperation with NPOM and with the support of leading space contractors around the world and an exceptionally strong management and advisory team, EA is in a unique position to initiate a new era of private orbital space exploration.”
Cosmonaut Vladimir Titov, advisor to EA in Russia, said, “With this announcement, the dream of private orbital space exploration may become a reality in the very near future.”
Former NASA astronaut LeRoy Chiao, a current member of the Augustine Commission, is the Executive Vice President for EA. (emphasis mine)
EA is headquartered in Isle of Man, British Isles, and support contractors are located in Moscow, Tokyo, Houston and Los Angeles.
EA’s spacecraft will consist of two parts: an RRV and an expendable service module to provide crewmembers with room to comfortably operate during spaceflight. EA said they will “update the Almaz RRVs with flight-proven technologies where appropriate, while retaining tested legacy systems to ensure safety and economy of operation. A critical feature of the RRVs is their reusability, which will reduce logistical, overhead and program costs for commercial access to space.”
EA plans for its spacecraft to be compatible with a number of launch vehicles and capable of being launched from worldwide sites.
I find it interesting that a former astronaut, and current member of the Augustine Commission is Executive Vice President of this company.
Can anyone spell “c-o-n-f-l-i-c-t o-f i-n-t-e-r-e-s-t ?”
Our good friends at the high-tech Pentagon company DARPA, has another goody waiting in the pipeline to perpetuate the Empire and bring death and destruction faster and deadlier through-out the world; high speed, deeper diving submarines.
The latest class of submarines can travel at more than 25 knots submerged.But what if the Navy had a much smaller submarine that could travel four times as fast?
”The real reason we buy nuclear submarines instead of non-nuclear ones is that we’re not protecting the Gulf of Mexico,” said retired Navy Capt. James Patton Jr., president of Submarine Tactics and Technology in North Stonington. “We go halfway around the world, real quick. We get there and we stay there. Anything that would allow you to get a platform somewhere a long ways away pretty quickly would have great military value.”
That is why the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, which commissions research for the Defense Department, has given Electric Boat millions of dollars to design a vehicle that could potentially transport high-value cargo or small groups of people at 100 knots (about 115 miles an hour) in a program known as “Underwater Express.”
The technology, if developed, could revolutionize ocean transportation if it could be adapted to cargo and passenger ships.
The vehicle would travel inside a large gas bubble created in the water, a process known as supercavitation. The bubble reduces drag, since the drag is much lower in air than in water, allowing the vehicle to travel at high speeds.
Supercavitation is not new. The technology has been applied to weapons, but never to transport vehicles, according to DARPA.
”What we’re trying to do is come up with the sweet spot where science meets practicality,” said Franz Edson, EB’s director of submarine payload integration and strategic weapon systems. “The problem with the technology, the science, was you couldn’t go very far, you didn’t have any endurance and you couldn’t maneuver very well, so it was really kind of limited practicality.
”What these guys here have come up with is a way to dramatically increase the endurance and maneuverability of a body in supercavitating flight, so now you can really start to do things with it.”
Blowing out air to create the bubble that envelops the vehicle is wasteful, and a vehicle can only carry so much compressed air, so Jack Chapman, an engineer at EB, came up with a way to “mitigate that issue,” Edson said.
Exactly how is the gas-bubble creation process managed efficiently? Well, that’s a secret.
”It’s revolutionary, but we can’t tell you what it is,” said Jennifer Panosky, program manager of advanced programs and future payloads at EB.
”It’s not something we want other people to be aware of,” Edson said. “We’ve proven it works. We’ve set records for the longest supercavitating flight in a water tunnel. This has the potential to change ocean transportation.
”Ships would be much more fuel-efficient, or could use the same amount of fuel and instead of taking two weeks to get across the Pacific, they could get across in a matter of days. It’s pretty slick.”
DARPA has given EB about $26 million so far for the project, with another $12 million expected by the end, said Panosky.
EB initially pitted its design against one from Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems in Maryland. EB was chosen to build a quarter-scale unmanned vehicle, based on the concept of a full-scale size of 8 feet in diameter and 100 feet in length, for a demonstration in spring 2010 in the waters off Rhode Island.
The demonstration will include a 10-minute run at speeds of up to 100 knots with maneuvers, including depth control, to show the controllability of the vehicle, according to a DARPA statement.
At that point, the program will conclude and the technology will be available to the Navy for use in future systems as desired, according to DARPA.
This ‘revolutionary development’ interests me a bit. It’s like creating an underwater ‘warp-bubble’ that enables the sub to become more ‘aerodynamic’ under water so it can go faster.
From what I understand from the article, the original method utilizes air to create the bubble that encircles the vessel ( torpedo/missile ).
I wonder just what this new development entails?
What fascinates me the most, this revelation ( revolutionary development )coincides with this tidbit from Russia:
The Russian navy has declassified its records of encounters with unidentified objects technologically surpassing anything humanity ever built, reports Svobodnaya Pressa news website.
The records dating back to soviet times were compiled by a special navy group collecting reports of unexplained incidents delivered by submarines and military ships. The group was headed by deputy Navy commander Admiral Nikolay Smirnov, and the documents reveal numerous cases of possible UFO encounters, the website says.
Vladimir Azhazha, former navy officer and a famous Russian UFO researcher, says the materials are of great value.
“Fifty percent of UFO encounters are connected with oceans. Fifteen more – with lakes. So UFOs tend to stick to the water,” he said.
On one occasion a nuclear submarine, which was on a combat mission in the Pacific Ocean, detected six unknown objects. After the crew failed to leave behind their pursuers by maneuvering, the captain ordered to surface. The objects followed suit, took to the air, and flew away.
Many mysterious events happened in the region of Bermuda Triangle, recalls retired submarine commander Rear Admiral Yury Beketov. Instruments malfunctioned with no apparent reason or detected strong interference. The former navy officer says this could be deliberate disruption by UFOs.
“On several occasions the instruments gave reading of material objects moving at incredible speed. Calculations showed speeds of about 230 knots, of 400 kph. Speeding so fast is a challenge even on the surface. But water resistance is much higher. It was like the objects defied the laws of physics. There’s only one explanation: the creatures who built them far surpass us in development,” Beketov said.
Could it be that these underwater objects utilized the same method that DARPA is studying for future submarines?
Does DARPA/Pentagon have a captured underwater UFO for study to back-engineer? Did the Russians for that matter? And why didn’t they copy the technology themselves?
Maybe there’s no connection at all and it’s just coincidence?
Gobekli Tepe ( Turkish for “hill with a belly” ) is an archeological Neolithic site that was discovered by American Peter Benedict in 1964, but was ignored by American academia until German archeologist Klaus Schmidt from the German Archeological Institute led a team thirty years later to excavate the site.
What was discovered sent mainstreamers into epileptic seizures and outright denial since.
For you see, Gobekli Tepe is one of the first constructed temple sites discovered to this date.
But that’s not the reason mainstream archeologists are ignoring the site, oh no.
The reason, as I see it, and others, is the extreme antiquity of the site.
According to Professor Schmidt, organic material scraped from the “T” shaped monuments radio-carbon dated the site to 10,000 to 8,000 B.C.!
That’s right, 5,000 to 7,000 years before the Egyptian Pyramids, or even Stonehenge !
So you can see how a monkey-wrench was thrown into the contemporary theory that sedentary societies ( farming/early towns ) under a single elite ruler could muster the manpower needed for such demanding construction projects.
The monkey-wrench being that Gobekli Tepe was most certainly constructed by hunter-gatherers !
It’s either that, or entertain the notion that agriculture/farms/towns/cities started earlier than hypothesized!
Already, the proposed date of wheat domestication has been pushed back somewhat by the discovery of the site:
Thus, the complexes originated before the so-called Neolithic Revolution, the beginning of agriculture and animal husbandry, which is assumed to begin after 9,000 BC. But the construction of the Göbekli Tepe complex implies organisation of a degree of complexity not hitherto associated with pre-Neolithic societies. The archaeologists estimate that up to 500 persons were required to extract the 10-20 ton pillars (in fact, some weigh up to 50 tons) from local quarries and move them 100 to 500m to the site. For sustenance, “wild cereals may have been used more intensely than so far; perhaps they were even deliberately cultivated.” Residential buildings have not been discovered as yet, but there are some “special buildings” which may have served for ritual gatherings.
There is also a theory that the story of the Sumerian creation myths/Biblical Genesis come from this site. There isn’t much empirical proof of such, oral histories passed from generation to generation before they were written down are considered heresay evidence:
Archaeologist Klaus Schmidt downplays extravagant spiritual interpretations of Göbekli Tepe, such as the idea, made popular in the press, that the site is the inspiration for the Biblical Garden of Eden. But he does agree that it was a sanctuary of profound significance in the Neolithic world. He sees it as a key site in understanding the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture, and from tribal to regional religion.
That being said, the oral and written links between the Garden of Eden tales and the transition between the hunter/gatherer and agricultural societies persist and aren’t easily dismissed:
[…]“To build such a place as this, the hunters must have joined together, in great numbers. After they finished building, they probably congregated for worship, and for funerals. But then they found that they couldn’t feed so many people with the game. So I think they began cultivating the grasses on the hills. Einkorn wheat, a forerunner of domestic wheat, grows wild here. So they domesticated it.” Schmidt looks at the solitary mulberry tree on the hill. “In other words, they began farming to support their religious community. But it was the farming that maybe caused their downfall.”
According to Schmidt, it seems that agriculture began here, in the province immediately surrounding Gobekli, sometime around 8,000BC.
This indeed was one of the very first places in the world where people farmed. We know roughly when and where farming began, because of the archæological evidence: domestication is a shock to the physiology of man and beast. The skeletons of people change, they temporarily grow smaller and less healthy, as the human body adapts to a protein-poorer diet and a more arduous lifestyle. Likewise, newly domesticated animals get scrawnier at first.
But 8,000BC, it seems, was also the time when the local landscape began to alter. As the trees were chopped down, and the soil leached away, the area became arid and bare. What was once a glorious pastoral region of forests and meadows, rich with game and wild grasses, became a toilsome place that had to be worked ever harder.
Schmidt and I descend a ladder to the floor of the dig, where the ancient dust is banked against the T-stones. He continues: “The really strange thing is that in 8,000BC, during the shift to agriculture, Gobekli Tepe was buried. I mean deliberately – not in a mudslide. For some reason the hunters, or the ex-hunters, decided to entomb the entire site in soil. The earth we are removing from the stones was put here by man himself: all these hills are artificial.”
The link is becoming irresistible: a lost paradise, a forsaken lifestyle, a terrible ‘mistake’, even a solitary tree. Could there really be a connection between Gobekli Tepe and the Garden of Eden story…?
This is not the first time this hypothesis was made. I remember watching a documentary about Stonehenge on the Science Channel last year and proposed theories why lunar calculations were a big deal at the site when solar calendars and relationships to the northern growing season mattered. The theory was that when these people were still hunter-gatherers, they hunted at night and needed to know when the phases of the Moon occurred.
Kind of like a “legacy” system.
And memories of a more “simpler” time perhaps.
It makes sense. Hunting at night during times of the half to full Moon provides just enough light to see by.
And to catch unsuspecting prey animals off-guard.
But when agriculture came along, with its adherence to a “day to night” time keeping schedule because of working the crops and domesticating/maintaining livestock, a different means of keeping and measuring cycles needed to happen.
Thus, our present means of solar-based timekeeping and seasonal measurement was born.
These events believe it or not was traumatic to our peaceful hunter-gatherer ancestors. A whole new way of life was evolving and certain groups of people and animals didn’t survive the transition.
Along with the Ice Ages ending around the 10,000 B.C. time-frame and possible local environmental changes nascent agriculture might have been causing, well it’s no wonder that stories and legends of more pristine, pure/innocent times were passed on.
Now, after our present means of civilization has grown up from these events, the agricultural town/city/nation-state model of coveting and stealing our neighbor’s property after we used up our own backyard has brought us to these precipitous times, the culmination of 6,000 years of collective “materialistic” knowledge so to speak, we must ask ourselves these very same questions our pre-Neolithic hunter-gatherer ancestors must have asked asked themselves:
“Is this truly what we want? Is this what life is? Are we any better off than when we hunted the Mammoth, Deer and Bear?”
A paradigm shift is coming our way again, Armageddon, 2012 and the Apocalypse not withstanding.
What legends and tales will we be passing on down the line 6,000 years hence?
P.S.: Tip of the chapeau to The Daily Grail !
On June 5, 1873, in a letter to The Times, Sir Francis Galton, the cousin of Charles Darwin and a distinguished African explorer in his own right, outlined a daring (if by today’s standards utterly offensive) new method to ‘tame’ and colonise what was then known as the Dark Continent.
‘My proposal is to make the encouragement of Chinese settlements of Africa a part of our national policy, in the belief that the Chinese immigrants would not only maintain their position, but that they would multiply and their descendants supplant the inferior Negro race,’ wrote Galton.
‘I should expect that the African seaboard, now sparsely occupied by lazy, palavering savages, might in a few years be tenanted by industrious, order-loving Chinese, living either as a semidetached dependency of China, or else in perfect freedom under their own law.’
Close relations: Chinese President Hu Jintao accompanies Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe to a ceremony in the Great Hall of the People in Beijing
Despite an outcry in Parliament and heated debate in the august salons of the Royal Geographic Society, Galton insisted that ‘the history of the world tells the tale of the continual displacement of populations, each by a worthier successor, and humanity gains thereby’.
A controversial figure, Galton was also the pioneer of eugenics, the theory that was used by Hitler to try to fulfil his mad dreams of a German Master Race.
Eventually, Galton’s grand resettlement plans fizzled out because there were much more exciting things going on in Africa.
But that was more than 100 years ago, and with legendary explorers such as Livingstone, Speke and Burton still battling to find the source of the Nile – and new discoveries of exotic species of birds and animals featuring regularly on newspaper front pages – vast swathes of the continent had not even been ‘discovered’.
Yet Sir Francis Galton, it now appears, was ahead of his time. His vision is coming true – if not in the way he imagined. An astonishing invasion of Africa is now under way.
In the greatest movement of people the world has ever seen, China is secretly working to turn the entire continent into a new colony.
Reminiscent of the West’s imperial push in the 18th and 19th centuries – but on a much more dramatic, determined scale – China’s rulers believe Africa can become a ’satellite’ state, solving its own problems of over-population and shortage of natural resources at a stroke.
With little fanfare, a staggering 750,000 Chinese have settled in Africa over the past decade. More are on the way.
The strategy has been carefully devised by officials in Beijing, where one expert has estimated that China will eventually need to send 300 million people to Africa to solve the problems of over-population and pollution.
The plans appear on track. Across Africa, the red flag of China is flying. ( Link )
It seems that China has been busy doing things other than financing Bu$hco’s little escapade in the Middle East. It looks like it’s been very, very profitable for them too.
The African continent has been raped, pillaged and plundered for over two hundred years and it looks like there’s no end in sight. The ongoing genocide of black Africans and other groups is appalling and history will condemn us for condoning it.
And we’ll deserve every bit of it.
“There are several curious things about these Pilgrims functions. In the first place there is present at these dinners an array of notables such as it would be difficult to bring together under one roof for any other purpose and by any other society… Among the guests were John D. Rockefeller and J.P. Morgan, Thomas W. Lamont and other members of the House of Morgan… We are entitled to know what the Pilgrim Society is, what it stands for, and who these powerful Pilgrims are that can call out the great to hear a British Ambassador expound to Americans the virtues of a united democratic front.”
– John T. Whiteford asking very reasonable questions in his 1940 pamphlet ‘Sir Uncle Sam: Knight of the British Empire’.
“[The aim of the international bankers was] nothing less than to create a world system of financial control in private hands able to dominate the political system of each country and the economy of the world as a whole. This system was to be controlled in a feudalist fashion by the central banks of the world acting in concert, by secret agreements arrived at in frequent private meetings and conferences.”
– Professor Carroll Quigley, ‘Tragedy & Hope’, p. 324. Can the Pilgrims, which Quigley never mentioned, verify his story of an Anglo-American Establishment?
Official Pilgrims logo. “Hic et Ubique” means “here and everywhere”, apparently a reference to the idea that the United States and Great Britain should stand together side by side everywhere. The eagle represents the United States; the lion Great Britain.
by Joël van der Reijden
Most people have at least vaguely heard of the “Eastern Establishment”. This is a reference to a group of people in the Northeast of the United States which to many appears to wield a disproportionate amount of influence over the nation’s politics. This influence, which goes back even further than the days of John D. Rockefeller, Sr. and J. P. Morgan, Sr. has been illustrated by the fact that a great number of individuals working in the senior positions of government have come from a number of New York-based banks, insurance companies and law firms, only to return to this group of banks and businesses after their public term came to an end. Often these individuals served in more than one administration, and together with a number of other peculiarities – think of controversial policies, suspected cover ups, ignored conflicts of interest, lack of media attention, etc. – some people have become suspicious of what at times appears to be almost like a permanent government. A 1962 newspaper column voiced these suspicions best:
“There is an establishment in the United States. The word “establishment” is a general term for the power elite in international finance, business, the professions largely from the Northeast, who wield most of the power regardless of who is in the White House.
“Most people are unaware of the existence of this “legitimate Mafia.” Yet the power of the establishment makes itself felt from the professor who seeks a foundation grant, to the candidate for a cabinet post or State Department job. It affects the nation’s policies in almost every area.
“For example, the Council on Foreign Relations in New York City, subsidized by Rockefeller interests since 1927 boasts a membership of at least 90 per cent establishment figures.”
This isn’t any different than what’s been put out there before, only more proof that there’s been a ruling elite of banking interests running the political scene for quite a long while. It’s also very natural for a child ( US ) to be like its parent ( UK ), so a relationship like this should come as no surprise.
This little idea was confirmed to me a couple of weeks ago when I was watching CNBC2’s World Wide Exchange program while getting ready for work and the British financial analyst made an offhand remark to the American analyst about the US taking up the “family business” and that the UK was proud of its “child”.
The American didn’t disagree. Which family business were they talking about? The world financial system, empire building or both?
I’m going to go out on a limb here and paraphase my buddy, The UberHighwayman (a very controvertial character), “…Global Warming, i.e., Climate Change is a racket dreamed up by the elite, which is backed up by dubious science and to push their “green” products for exorbitant prices. It is also a way to scam more taxes from the serfs of the planet…”. That said, here is an excerpt from today’s Daily Galaxy :
Common sense and history says it would be only a matter of time before entrepreneurial enterprises in our era made themselves known in the fight against global warming.
Sadly, they’re not necessarily out to help; or at least, not entirely.
A month or so ago a group called Planktos wanted to begin dumping large amounts of iron in to the water around the Galapagos Islands. The theory is that by artificially increasing the amount iron in the water, it will help seed plankton that eats (stores) carbon from the atmosphere.
The Galápagos Islands -a protected archipelago of volcanic islands distributed around the equator, 965 kilometres (about 600 miles) west of continental Ecuador in the Pacific are all part of Ecuador’s national park system, was the catalyst for Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection during the famed voyage of the HMS Beagle in 1835.
Over the past several decades, the seas have begun to decrease their carbon consumption. Man-made pollution has severely damaged our oceans, and one must only look at the dead zones forming in the China East Sea and the Gulf of Mexico for proof.
Algae blooms are the issue that companies like Planktos are trying to combat. By ‘seeding’ the oceans, they believe that they can combat the blooms and bring oxygen back to the waters.
But, when you think about it, what are the companies getting out of it? A warm fuzzy feeling for helping the environment? Unlikely. No, by being able to “clean up the environment” Planktos believe that they can then sell carbon-offset credits to companies. It’s all about the bottom line.
Now if anybody has ever read UHs’ posts (he himself admits they’re rants), you know he doesn’t think very highly about the New World Order (NWO) and climate change. He isn’t the only one. Alex Jones of Prison Planet also says that Global Warming is an elitist scam. He often goes one better by claiming that it’s caused purposely by the elites using HAARP technology!
My purpose of writing this little tome is not to say yay or nay about human causation for Global Warming, 250 years of Industrial Revolution or military HAARP technology not withstanding. But what I do find interesting is the sudden “appearence” of these companies that are capable (that might be debatable) of technologies that could help alleviate the CO2 problem and counter dead zones in coastal regions. All ready to make some money of course.
Couple that with megacorps that are eager to exploit the retreating Arctic Ice Cap that’s opening the North West Passage and Russia planting its’ flag under the Arctic Ocean on a continental shelf, it does make one wonder whether this is all just coincidental, or a well planned out project.
Paranoid am I? Oh, but I do love conundrums!
The Atlantropa Project, or it’s earlier name Pantropa was the brain-child of German engineer Herman Sorgel (1885-1952). The main thrust of the project was to build a dam across the Straits of Gibraltar, generate electrical power for the citizens of Europe, lower the level of the Mediterranean Sea creating new new land area to be used for farming and city building and link Europe with Africa. Also the creation of two inland seas similar to the Great Lakes in North America, Lake Congo and Lake Chad would happen because of flooding of the Congo River. Various other projects on the African Continent would take place, a new Suez Canal Project, a newer “Second Nile River” and other dam projects could solve the ever growing demands for fossil fuels. Another added benefit would be the de-desertification of the Sahara Plains, reverting it to it’s Ice Age temporate climate. Also the more fruit bearing portions of Europe would come back:
“The Canal des Deux Mers (Two Oceans Canal) comes to mind, 2 connecting Marseille and Bordeaux, the Mediterranean and the English Channel, the Panropa-Project, which wants to recover Europe’s actual fruit country, the Mediterranean Basin, by uncovering the once flooded areas with the help of the Gibraltar dam.”
That may be so, but the Mediterranean had immense salt plains during the last Ice Age:
“At the Strait of Gibraltar, deep, salty Mediterranean water flows into the Atlantic and northward as it mixes up into the salty Gulf Stream surface water. Today some of that mixture flows westward into the Labrador Sea Southwest of Greenland, and much of it also flows beyond the Faeroe Islands off Scotland and eventually into the Arctic Ocean. About 160,000 years ago, an ice age was already under way, and the seas east and west of Greenland were very cold. But the salinity of the mixture reaching Labrador made the water dense enough to sink easily when cooled in winter, and the warmer salty replacement mixture kept the seas south of Greenland relatively warm.
“Storms usually track over areas where warm and cold conditions exist side by side,” said Johnson. This temperature contrast with the Greenland ice sheet and other cold areas kept eastward-moving storms to the north. This channelled large amounts of moisture over both European and Siberian areas, causing enormous growth of the ice sheets there.”
So there’s the rub, build the dam and you may gain in surface area, but you’ll cause and Ice Age because of increasing cloud cover and salinity of the Mediterranean. According to some advocates though, this is to be expected and not a big deal:
Late in the Late in the 20th century, Robert Glenn Johnson, suspecting that the increasing salinity of the seawater exiting the Mediterranean Sea at the Strait of Gibraltar might be the near-term future cause of a new Earth ice age – the beginning of its onset predicted 30 years hence – proffered a controversial proposal to study the Macro-engineering concept of a porous barrier, a permeable rubble-mound dam, emplaced in the fluid connection between the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea (Johnson, 1997). Johnson’s artificial reef-like rubble pile seawater flow throttle was only intended to slow the outflow of highly saline water, which eventually affects the essential physical characteristics of seawater in the North Atlantic Ocean, in order to prevent ice sheet formation in northeastern Canada. His anti-ice age macroproject rests entirely on the proposition that Egypt’s Aswan High Dam (closed in 1965) has caused the measured increased salinification of exiting Mediterranean Sea water; Johnson’s rubble mound dam – really a proposal for an anthropogenic submarine ridge – becomes an expensive and worthless techno-fix if the Aswan High Dam were simply breached! If the Aswan High Dam were suddenly demolished naturally – as in Michael Heim’s terrifying novel Aswan! (1972) – or simply breached by macroengineers, release of the reservoir’s entire contents would raise temporarily the Mediterranean Sea’s level by about 6.6 cm. (A new Ice Age could cause global sea level to lower! Both the elevating and the declining global sea level will form new base level’s of continental and islandic erosion and also affect national legal systems of real property ownership.) Johnson’s neo-ice age concept of past and future climate changes is fully and carefully described in Secrets of the Ice Ages: The Role of the Mediterranean Sea in Climate Change (2002). By 2006, the scientific controversy over R.G. Johnson’s theory remained scientifically unresolved (Bryden and Webb, 1998; Skliris and Lascaratos, 2004). Both Johnson’s and Sorgel’s barriers would alter (de-tune) the Mediterranean Sea’s tides, in some instances (such as in the case of the Aegean Sea) possibly doubling the amplitudes of its semidiurnal tides. Furthermore, changes of the Mediterranean Sea’s wave climate will also occur (Lionello and Sanna, 2005), forcing prudent revision of existing ship weather-routing procedures. In addition, both barriers would probably terminate the anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide gas drawdown currently performed by the Mediterranean Sea (Alvarez, 2005). It is doubtful that the Gibraltar Strait Dam could imitate China’s Great Wall as a notable impediment to gene flow (Su, 2003).
When Sorgel first proposed the Atlantropa idea, not once did he consider the Africans in the equation. He was a product of his racist times, which considered the white male the pinnacle of God’s Creation. Thus Africa was; ” turned into a territory actually useful to Europe“. I wonder what present day Africans would say about that?
In fact, present day Africans might actually have a lot of say if an Atlantropa ever gets off the grawing board. According to Richard B. Cathcart, founder of GEOGRAPHOS Consultancy and a geographer who specializes in macroengineering projects, the changing demographics of Europe might launch Atlantropa:
Currently, a demographic shift in Europe seems to presage an epoch – occurring, perhaps, sometime around 2010-2050 – that will forever alter Europe’s still distinctive culture: post-World War II Europe has been colonized by Muslims mainly from North Africa. By 2010-2050, Muslims in southern Europe (Spain, France, and Italy) may form ~25% of the total population and working Muslim adults may total ~40% of the available labor force. This means that an almost forgotten macroproject such as the Gibraltar Strait Dam and its associated infrastructure developments may find future acceptance amongst voting citizens of southern Europe and northern Africa. Forecast future climate regimes in the Mediterranean Sea Basin are likely to be the initial stimulation for a re-thinking of the old macroproject proposal (Kepner, 2005). “By……North Africa’s population should exceed Southern Europe’s by close to 100 million people” (Sandell (2004). The Netherlands owns infrastructure worth approximately $2.5 trillion – put into perspective, that is equivalent to the annual USA-European Union commercial relationship – that has been emplaced to protect the people of that country from unwanted seawater incursions. There appears to be a 1% chance that a 1 m rise in global sea level will come to pass during the 21st century. [A 2 m rise is the current threshold defining “dangerous anthropogenic” alteration of the world’s ocean level (Hansen, 2005).] Assuming a cost of $1 million/linear kilometer, a total safeguard for the Mediterranean Sea Basin’s coast from incursive future sea level rise might cost almost $13 trillion! Of course, that is an excessive cost, quite unlikely to ever be considered anything other than ultimate limitation (Valiela, 2006). Such a completed macroproject would resemble David Ely’s imagined East Coast USA “dyke-wall” of AD 2064 postulated in his science-fiction novel A Journal of the Flood Year (1992)! Since “miscalculation or sheer ignorance of cost and difficulties was the key to launching a number of great and successful enterprises, from canals and railroads to mining and manufacturing” (Sawyer, 1952), it might seem best, even wise, to glibly gloss over the Gibraltar Strait Dam’s dangers and difficulties in public media so that modern-day macroengineers can be inspiring and calm, reassured by displayable positive cost/benefit analyses, attractive detailed construction blueprints and privately adjustable building timetables! As the 37th CIESM – The Mediterranean Science Commission Congress (7-11 June 2004) collectively generalized, the activities of humans tends to “globalize” the Mediterranean Sea, both biologically and otherwise. Nevertheless, some of the details of this possible macroproject proposal are revealed below. The optimal style of dam building is specific to the particular macroproject, the nature of the geophysical worksite (Anon., 2005) as well as social uncertainty, the undertaking management organization’s experience, the operational complexities of many kinds of construction machinery and worker nationalities, the macroproject’s situational geography and the logistics of its required compositional materials.
The Atlantropa Project is compared quite a bit with the Netherlands North Sea Reclaimation Project with its dam, dike and canal construction. While the engineering end of it isn’t as large in scope as Atlantropa, the tools and know-how utilized are similar because changing coastlines, fresh-water and land reclaimation play a vital role on evironmental impact studies. So the Netherland Project is closely monitored.
Professor Michio Kaku of the City University of New York stated that our present civilization is only a “Type Zero” on the Kardashev Scale of Technical Civilizations (I, II, III and even a IV). Type I indicates the planetary culture has full command of all planetary resources, i.e., can control the weather, use all energy resources (hydro, geothermal, nuclear, wind, solar, etc.) and live under under peaceful, or as close to peaceful conditions as possible. The Atlantropa Project is a terraforming endeavor that could determine whether mankind has what it takes to bring itself to the Type I level without destroying ourselves and the planet.
Is this tinfoil or not? You decide gentle readers.
Space stuff today folks. From NewScientist.com:
A revolutionary plasma rocket engine has been tested for a record time of more than four hours at a test facility in Costa Rica. Scientists at the Ad Astra Rocket Company hope the engine will eventually be cheaper to operate than conventional models and will reduce travel time for space missions.
The company, led by Costa Rican-born, former NASA astronaut Franklin Chang-Diaz, hopes to use its rocket engines to boost commercial spacecraft into higher orbits, stabilise space stations, and then to power a trip to Mars within two decades, cutting the travel time by about a third to around three months
The engine works by stripping electrons from hydrogen atoms and accelerating the resulting plasma in an electric field. Expelling the plasma out of the back of the engine generates thrust. The technique is known as Variable Specific-Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) technology, and was conceived in the 1970s.
There have been a myriad of technologies available since the 1960s to get away from using chemical rockets to push spacecraft around. Either the military-industrial-complex has the advanced technologies tied up exclusively for their own use, or somebody or something is suppressing the science. I would really like to see something come of this. Plasma Rocket Breaks Endurance Record
Various governments around the world have been trying to get in on the space program business for decades now, mostly in the communication satellite end of things. Recently though, China has embarked on their own manned space program and are playing catch up with the U.S. and Russia. Russia, after the fall of the U.S.S.R. hasn’t been able to maintain their program money-wise and America has had safety issues and increasing costs associated with the shuttle program. So what to do?
Enter the free market. This I whole-heartedly support. Good old capitalism does have its merits, if true competition is allowed to flourish, instead of monopolistic no-bid bullsh*t that certain governments try to pass off as “free market”.
So certain private companies are trying to enter the near-earth/suborbital tourism market by designing and building true “space-planes” that are durable, space-hardy and safe.
New ‘space jet’ proposed for suborbital jaunts
And finally, I’m going to jump from near-Earth orbit to Mars. A lot of probes have been thrown at the Red Planet in recent years, mainly to see if water (or traces of it) could be found. If evidence of water can be found, future colonization efforts would be eased greatly with it’s discovery. The MRO (Mars Recon Orbiter) and the rovers Spirit and Opportunity have been instrumental in finding traces of an ocean (or at the least, a large sea) that covered Mars a couple of billion years ago.
Nobody knows why Martian water dried up that long ago, speculations run from that Mars’ molten core cooled off, thus shutting down its protective magnetic field to prolonged cometary bombardment. Both theories have their share of physical evidence. But the latest buzz this week of solid evidence of a massive shoreline on Mars gives more credence to the idea that the planet had water on its surface, and thus the chance of primitive live forming. And if proof of non-UFO life forming on another planet can be found, it will forever change Mankind’s outlook on the Universe. Maybe.
Surf’s Up on Mars
Fast silicon chips that use both light and electricity to process information and communicate could made be more efficient using a new “energy harvesting” technique developed by US researchers.
I heard rumors about silicon chips using optical means to process information faster, now it seems somebody might’ve solved the problem. ‘Energy Harvesting’
This one will make Mirthy happy:
For decades, posters depicting rabbits with inflamed, reddened eyes symbolised campaigns against the testing of cosmetics on animals. Now the most severe of those tests are to be banned across the European Union.
I’m an old softy when it comes to small animals. But I don’t let too many people know that, gotta maintain an image y’know. Europe bans most severe animal tests
This one here doesn’t surprise me much:
Cost and benefit
The most awaited figures of the report relate to the cost of limiting global warming. The final version says that stabilising concentrations of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere at between 590 and 710 parts per million (ppm) would cost 0.2% of global GDP. Computer modelling studies predict that within this range, global temperatures should not rise beyond 4°C.
Stabilising greenhouse gas concentrations at between 445 and 535 ppm will cost 3.0% of global GDP. Current concentrations are at 425 ppm. The IPCC’s best estimate is that 445 ppm will bring about a 2°C rise in global temperature.
But “there is only about a 40% chance of staying below 2°C even if we opt for 450 ppm stabilisation”, notes Myles Allen, of Oxford University in the UK.
The “pinch” point is 2050 as far as population growth and global warming are concerned, meaning that the Earth’s ecosphere will reach a stress point; runaway greenhouse effect and a population clash resulting in more wars and genocide over dwindling resources, water being a big one. But in the end, will it matter if the nation with the most money win? Price placed on limiting global warming.
It has been theorized that reducing caloric intake, and this has been proven with studies on mice, can lengthen life spans. Well, that’s ok, but I like to eat and most Americans do also. Now some wiz-kid has a possible way to get around this conundrum, using worms! A Lean Gene for Low-Cal Longevity
And I gotta add some tinfoil to Friday Science, or I would lose my credibility amongst the faithful, no?
As countless photos from space can attest, Earth is round—the “Blue Marble,” as astronauts have affectionately dubbed it. Appearances, however, can be deceiving. Planet Earth is not, in fact, perfectly round.
This is heresy! Columbus must be rolling in his grave! But St. Thomas of Friedman recently wrote a book about the Earth being ‘flat’. Okay, I won’t go there. Strange but True: Earth Is Not Round.